A myocardial infarction (which is often referred to as a heart attack) is a life-threatening disorder caused by a shortage of blood supply to the heart muscle. A variety of things can cause blood flow problems, but the most common reason is a blockage in one or more of your heart’s arteries. The afflicted cardiac muscle will die if there is no blood supply. In the absence of timely blood flow restoration, a heart attack can cause irreversible myocardial damage and death.
A plaque can rupture and form a clot, impeding blood flow. If blood flow is disturbed, parts of the heart muscle might be injured or killed. Even though a heart attack, also known as a myocardial infarction, can be fatal, myocardial infarction treatment has dramatically improved over time.
A delay of even a few minutes in treating a heart attack can result in severe cardiac damage or death.
Symptoms of Heart Attack:
There are a variety of symptoms that can accompany a heart attack, some of which are more common than others. In addition, your sex has an impact on your symptoms, as men and women are more prone to experience various heart attack symptoms.
- Pain in the chest (angina). This symptom might be moderate, causing discomfort or heaviness, or severe, causing excruciating pain. It may begin in your chest and spread (or radiate) to other parts of your body, such as your left arm (or both arms), shoulder, neck, jaw, back, or down to your waist.
- Breathing difficulties or shortness of breath.
- Nausea or stomach pains are common side effects. The diagnosis of dyspepsia can sometimes mislead doctors when it comes to heart attacks.
- Palpitations in the heart.
- Anxiety implies a sense of “impending disaster.”
- Feeling dizzy, lightheaded, or passing out.
Indications in Women:
According to new medical studies, women may have the above symptoms, but they also have a larger probability of developing symptoms other than those listed above.
The following are less likely to be described by women:
- Pain in the center of the chest, especially.
- Irritable indigestion-like discomfort.
Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction:
An emergency hospital environment is the most common setting for diagnosing heart attacks. Anyone experiencing signs of a heart attack should get a physical exam, which includes evaluating their pulse, blood oxygen levels, blood pressure, and listening to their heart and lung sounds. Reach out to a Multispeciality Hospital to get the right diagnosis and treatment for heart attack.
History of the Patient:
The doctor will inquire about the symptoms you’ve had. If someone accompanied you, the provider might also ask them to narrate what happened.
When someone presents to the emergency room with symptoms of a heart attack, one of the first tests they perform is this one. In this type of examination, electrodes attach to the chest’s surface as sensors. The electrodes detect electrical activity in the heart and display it on a screen or printed as a wave. Providers can examine the strength and timing of the electrical signal as it travels through your heart by looking at the wave.
The shape of the wave changes when the signal does not travel as it should, which can signify a heart attack or other difficulties. A continuous EKG is frequently used to evaluate changes in cardiac activity after a heart attack. It is recommended by a heart attack specialist doctor.
Damage to heart muscle cells almost always causes a chemical marker to develop in your bloodstream during a heart attack. The use of blood testing to look for that marker is one of the most reliable ways to diagnose a heart attack.
Ultrasound (high-frequency sound waves) is used in this test, similar to how bats use ultrasound as a sonar to detect impediments. At varying speeds, the ultrasonic waves will pass through and bounce off different sections of your heart.
Echocardiography can use this information to create an image of your heart’s interior and exterior.
Treatment Options for Myocardial Infarction:
To treat a heart attack, there must be an immediate restoration of blood flow to the injured muscle. It can occur in several ways, including medicine and heart attack surgery. However, several methods listed below are quite likely to be used throughout treatment.
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention:
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a treatment that restores blood flow to the afflicted heart muscle. PCI is a process that involves inserting a catheter-based device into a major blood artery (usually one near your upper thigh).
The clinician threads the catheter up to the blocked artery on your heart after inserting it into the blood vessel through a minor incision. The provider will inflate a small balloon on the end of the device. Once it reaches the blockage location to widen the blood artery and eliminate the obstruction.
PCI is an important tool for restoring blood flow, and the sooner it occurs, the better the chances of a successful outcome. To assess their capacity to treat a heart attack, hospitals utilize a metric known as “door-to-balloon time”. It is the average time it takes for a patient to receive PCI after arriving in the emergency room.
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting:
Patients with severe coronary artery blockages may benefit from coronary artery bypass grafting. Open heart surgery, bypass surgery, or CABG also refers to this procedure.
CABG uses a blood vessel from another part of the body (typically your chest, arm, or leg) to create a detour for blood. It reroutes blood around the segment of a blocked artery (or more than one artery; a double bypass goes around two arteries, three is a triple, and so on).
In general, there are several things you may take to reduce your risk of having a heart attack. Unfortunately, some circumstances are beyond your control. Particularly your family history, can still contribute to a heart attack despite your best efforts. Still, lowering your risk can help you avoid a heart attack or lessen the severity if you do have one. Immediately consult a heart specialist at a multispecialty hospital in case of any signs of a heart attack.